Python vocabulary

Here we provide a list of commonly used terms that you will most probably encounter when doing Python programming. Terms are listed in alphabetical order in English. Finnish terms and definitions are shown in italics.

data type (tietotyyppi)

An attribute defining the characteristics of a value in a program. For example, type int is an integer (whole number).

Definition to be given in Finnish.

function (funktio)

A reusable piece of code that performs a single action.

Definition to be given in Finnish.

index (taulukko)

A number indicating the location of a specific value stored in Python lists or tuples. The first index value of list is always 0.

Definition to be given in Finnish.

library (ohjelmakirjasto)

A group of related modules.

Definition to be given in Finnish.

list (lista)

A data type in Python that can be used to store collections of values. The data in lists can be heterogeneous and data can be added or removed from lists. Index values can be used to access invididual list items.

Definition to be given in Finnish.

module (moduuli)

A file containing Python definitions and statements. Module files have the .py file extension.

Definition to be given in Finnish.

script (ohjelma)

A dedicated document for writing Python code that you can execute. Python script files should always have the .py file extension.

Definition to be given in Finnish.

variable (muuttuja)

A way of storing values in the memory of the computer using specific names that you define.

Definition to be given in Finnish.

  • Data types

    • Integer (int) = Whole number

    • Float (float) = Decimal number

    • String (str) = Text

    • Boolean (bool) = True / False

    • List (list) = A “container” that can store any kind of values. You can create a list with square brackets e.g. [1, 2, 3, 'a', 'b', 'c'].

    • Tuple (tuple) = A similar “container” as list with a difference that you cannot update the values in a tuple. You can create a tuple with parentheses (1, 2, 3, 'a', 'b', 'c').

Basic vocabulary of Version Control

Few basic terms that are used often when discussing about version control (not exhaustive).


A location where all the files for a particular project are stored, usually abbreviated to “repo.” Each project will have its own repo, which is usually located on a server and can be accessed by a unique URL (a link to GitHub page for example).

  • Commit = To commit is to write or merge the changes made in the working copy back to the repository. Whe you commit, you are basically taking a “snapshot” of your repository at that point in time, giving you a checkpoint to which you can reevaluate or restore your project to any previous state. The terms ‘commit’ or ‘checkin’ can also be used as nouns to describe the new revision that is created as a result of committing.

  • Revision / version = A revision or a version is any change in made in any form to a document(s).

  • Clone = Cloning means creating a repository containing the revisions from another repository. This is equivalent to pushing or pulling into an empty (newly initialized) repository. As a noun, two repositories can be said to be clones if they are kept synchronized, and contain the same revisions.

  • Pull / push = Copy revisions from one repository into another. Pull is initiated by the receiving repository, while push is initiated by the source. Fetch is sometimes used as a synonym for pull, or to mean a pull followed by an update.

  • Merge = A merge or integration is an operation in which two sets of changes are applied to a file or set of files.